• Article  

      Abnormal functional activation and maturation of fronto-striato-temporal and cerebellar regions during sustained attention in autism spectrum disorder 

      Christakou, A.; Giampietro, V.; Brammer, Michael; Smith, A. B.; Robertson, D. M.; Rubia, K.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, P. F.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Carrington, S.; Chakrabarti, B.; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Ecker, C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, D. K.; Lombardo, Michael V.; Madden, A.; Mullins, D.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Pasco, Greg; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, D.; Steward, R.; Suckling, John; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Williams, Steven C. R. (2014)
      Objective: Sustained attention problems are common in people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may have significant implications for the diagnosis and management of ASD and associated comorbidities. Furthermore, ASD ...
    • Article  

      The amygdala in autism: Not adapting to faces? 

      Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, B.; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2009)
    • Article  

      Are power calculations useful? A multicentre neuroimaging study 

      Suckling, John; Henty, Julian; Ecker, C.; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jezzard, Peter; Barnes, Anna; Chakrabarti, B.; Ooi, Cinly; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Williams, Steven C. R.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Bullmore, Edward T. (2014)
      There are now many reports of imaging experiments with small cohorts of typical participants that precede large-scale, often multicentre studies of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Data from these calibration ...
    • Article  

      Association between the probability of autism spectrum disorder and normative sex-related phenotypic diversity in brain structure 

      Ecker, C.; Andrews, Derek Sayre; Gudbrandsen, Christina M.; Marquand, Andre F.; Ginestet, Cedric E.; Daly, Eileen M.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Williams, Steven C. R.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M. (2017)
      IMPORTANCE Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is 2 to 5 times more common in male individuals than in female individuals. While the male preponderant prevalence of ASD might partially be explained by sex differences in clinical ...
    • Article  

      Autism attenuates sex differences in brain structure: A combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study 

      Beacher, Felix D. C. C.; Minati, L.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Gray, Marcus A.; Harrison, Neil A.; Critchley, Hugo D. (2012)
      BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: It has been proposed that autism spectrums condition may represent a form of extreme male brain (EMB), a notion supported by psychometric, behavioral, and endocrine evidence. Yet, limited data are ...
    • Article  

      Decreased centrality of cortical volume covariance networks in autism spectrum disorders 

      Balardin, J. B.; Comfort, W. E.; Daly, Eileen M.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Andrews, Derek Sayre; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Ecker, C.; Sato, J. R.; Bailey, Anthony J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bolton, P. F.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Carrington, S.; Catani, Marco; Chakrabarti, B.; Craig, Michael C.; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, D. K.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Madden, A.; Mullins, D.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Pasco, Greg; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Sadek, Susan A.; Spain, D.; Stewart, R.; Suckling, John; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Wilson, C. E.; MRC AIMS Consortium (2015)
      Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by atypical structural and functional brain connectivity. Complex network analysis has been mainly used to describe altered ...
    • Article  

      Elevated fetal steroidogenic activity in autism 

      Baron-Cohen, Simon; Auyeung, Bonnie; Nørgaard-Pedersen, B.; Hougaard, D. M.; Abdallah, M. W.; Melgaard, L.; Cohen, A. S.; Chakrabarti, B.; Ruta, L.; Lombardo, Michael V. (2015)
      Autism affects males more than females, giving rise to the idea that the influence of steroid hormones on early fetal brain development may be one important early biological risk factor. Utilizing the Danish Historic Birth ...
    • Article  

      In Vivo Evidence of Reduced Integrity of the Gray-White Matter Boundary in Autism Spectrum Disorder 

      Andrews, Derek Sayre; Avino, Thomas A.; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Daly, Eileen M.; Marquand, Andre F.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Williams, Steven C. R.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Ecker, Christine (2017)
      Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that ...
    • Article  

      Intranasal oxytocin enhances intrinsic corticostriatal functional connectivity in women 

      Bethlehem, R. A. I.; Lombardo, Michael V.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Auyeung, Bonnie; Crockford, S. K.; Deakin, J. B.; Soubramanian, S.; Sule, A.; Kundu, Prantik; Voon, Valerie; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2017)
      Oxytocin may influence various human behaviors and the connectivity across subcortical and cortical networks. Previous oxytocin studies are male biased and often constrained by task-based inferences. Here, we investigate ...
    • Article  

      A meta-analysis of sex differences in human brain structure 

      Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Salimi-Khorshidi, G.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Tait, Roger J.; Suckling, John (2014)
      The prevalence, age of onset, and symptomatology of many neuropsychiatric conditions differ between males and females. To understand the causes and consequences of sex differences it is important to establish where they ...
    • Article  

      Moral dilemmas film task: A study of spontaneous narratives by individuals with autism spectrum conditions 

      Barnes, Jennifer L.; Lombardo, Michael V.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2009)
      People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulties with mentalizing, empathy, and narrative comprehension. A new test of social and narrative cognition, the Moral Dilemmas Film Task, was developed to probe ...
    • Article  

      Organizational effects of fetal testosterone on human corpus callosum size and asymmetry 

      Chura, Lindsay R.; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ashwin, Emma; Auyeung, Bonnie; Chakrabarti, B.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2010)
      Previous theory and research in animals has identified the critical role that fetal testosterone (FT) plays in organizing sexually dimorphic brain development. However, to date there are no studies in humans directly testing ...
    • Article  

      Oxytocin increases eye contact during a real-time, naturalistic social interaction in males with and without autism 

      Auyeung, Bonnie; Lombardo, Michael V.; Heinrichs, M.; Chakrabarti, B.; Sule, A.; Deakin, J. B.; Bethlehem, R. A. I.; Dickens, L.; Mooney, Natasha; Sipple, J. A. N.; Thiemann, P.; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2015)
      Autism spectrum conditions (autism) affect ~1% of the population and are characterized by deficits in social communication. Oxytocin has been widely reported to affect social-communicative function and its neural underpinnings. ...
    • Article  

      Prenatal and postnatal hormone effects on the human brain and cognition 

      Auyeung, Bonnie; Lombardo, Michael V.; Baron-Cohen, Simon (2013)
      This review examines the role of hormones in the development of social and nonsocial cognition and the brain. Research findings from human studies designed to elucidate the effects of both prenatal and postnatal exposure ...
    • Article  

      The "reading the mind in the eyes" test: Complete absence of typical sex difference in 400 men and women with autism 

      Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bowen, Daniel C.; Holt, R. J.; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Lombardo, Michael V.; Smith, P.; Lai, Meng-Chuan (2015)
      The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test (Eyes test) is an advanced test of theory of mind. Typical sex difference has been reported (i.e., female advantage). Individuals with autism show more difficulty than do typically ...
    • Article  

      Sex differences and Autism: Brain function during verbal fluency and mental rotation 

      Beacher, Felix D. C. C.; Radulescu, Eugenia; Minati, L.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Walker, Anne; Howard, Dawn; Gray, Marcus A.; Harrison, Neil A.; Critchley, Hugo D. (2012)
      Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) affect more males than females. This suggests that the neurobiology of autism: 1) may overlap with mechanisms underlying typical sex-differentiation or 2) alternately reflect sex-specificity ...
    • Article  

      Shared neural circuits for mentalizing about the self and others 

      Lombardo, Michael V.; Chakrabarti, B.; Bullmore, Edward T.; Wheelwright, Sally J.; Sadek, Susan A.; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Bailey, Anthony J.; Bolton, P. F.; Carrington, S.; Daly, Eileen M.; Deoni, Sean C. L.; Ecker, C.; Happé, Francesca; Henty, Julian; Jezzard, Peter; Johnston, Patrick; Jones, D. K.; Madden, A.; Mullins, D.; Murphy, Clodagh M.; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Pasco, Greg; Spain, D.; Stewart, R.; Williams, Steven C. R. (2010)
      Although many examples exist for shared neural representations of self and other, it is unknown how such shared representations interact with the rest of the brain. Furthermore, do high-level inference-based shared mentalizing ...
    • Book  

      Understanding other minds: Perspectives from Developmental Social Neuroscience 

      Baron-Cohen, Simon; Tager-Flusberg, H.; Lombardo, Michael V. (Oxford University Press, 2013)
    • Article  

      Why are Autism Spectrum conditions more prevalent in Males? 

      Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ashwin, Emma; Chakrabarti, B.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca (2011)
      Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition. Although the cause of this bias remains a mystery, we argue that it occurs because ASC is an ...
    • Book Chapter  

      Why is autism more common in males? 

      Baron-Cohen, Simon; Lombardo, Michael V.; Auyeung, Bonnie; Ashwin, Emma; Chakrabarti, B.; Knickmeyer, Rebecca (2014)
      Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) are much more common in males, a bias that may offer clues to the etiology of this condition. We argue that it occurs because ASC are an extreme manifestation of the male brain. The extreme ...