• Article  

      Emergence of drug-resistant HIV-1 variants in patients undergoing structured treatment interruptions 

      Schweighardt, B.; Ortiz, G. M.; Grant, R. M.; Wellons, M.; Miralles, G. D.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Bartlett, J. A.; Nixon, D. F. (2002)
      We report the emergence of drug-resistant viral mutations in chronically HIV-infected individuals undergoing structured treatment interruptions (STI). The protease mutation M46L and the reverse transcriptase mutations K101E ...
    • Article  

      Emergence of Minor Populations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Carrying the M184V and L90M Mutations in Subjects Undergoing Structured Treatment Interruptions 

      Metzner, K. J.; Bonhoeffer, S.; Fischer, M.; Karanicolas, R.; Allers, K.; Joos, B.; Weber, R.; Hirschel, B.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Günthard, H. F. (2003)
      The use of structured treatment interruption (STI) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects is currently being studied as an alternative therapeutic strategy for HIV-1. The potential risk for selection of ...
    • Article  

      Increase in transmitted resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors among newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Europe 

      Moutschen, M.; Frentz, D.; Van de Vijver, D. A. M. C.; Abecasis, A. B.; Albert, Jan; Hamouda, O.; Jørgensen, L. B.; Ku¨cherer, C.; Struck, D.; Schmit, J. -C; Vercauteren, J.; A˚sjo¨, B.; Balotta, Claudia; Beshkov, Danail; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Clotet, B.; Coughlan, S.; Griskevicius, A.; Grossman, Z.; Horban, A.; Kolupajeva, T.; Korn, K.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Liitsola, K.; Linka, M.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios N.; Paredes, R.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Sto¨ckl, E.; So¨nnerborg, A.; Stanekova, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Van Wijngaerden, E.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Puchhammer-Stockl, E.; Sarcletti, M.; Schmied, B.; Geit, M.; Balluch, G.; Vandamme, A. -M; Vercauteren, J.; Derdelinckx, I.; Sasse, A.; Bogaert, M.; Ceunen, H.; De Roo, A.; De Wit, S.; Echahidi, F.; Fransen, K.; Goffard, J. -C; Goubau, P.; Goudeseune, E.; Yombi, J. -C; Lacor, P.; Liesnard, C.; Pierard, D.; Rens, R.; Schrooten, Y.; Vaira, D.; Vandekerckhove, L. P. R.; Van den Heuvel, A.; Van Der Gucht, B.; Van Ranst, M.; Van Wijngaerden, E.; Vandercam, B.; Vekemans, M.; Verhofstede, C.; Clumeck, N.; Van Laethem, K.; Demetriades, Ioannis; Kousiappa, Ioanna; Demetriou, Victoria L.; Hezka, Johana; Bruckova, M.; Linka, M.; Machala, L.; Nielsen, C.; Jørgensen, L. B.; Gerstoft, J.; Mathiesen, L.; Pedersen, C.; Nielsen, H.; Laursen, A.; Kvinesdal, B.; Salminen, M.; Ristola, M.; Liitsola, K.; Suni, J.; Sutinen, J.; Korn, K.; Ku¨cherer, C.; Berg, T.; Braun, P.; Poggensee, G.; Da¨umer, M.; Eberle, J.; Heiken, H.; Kaiser, R.; Knechten, H.; Mu¨ller, H.; Neifer, S.; Schmidt, B.; Walter, H.; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, B.; Harrer, T.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios N.; Hatzakis, Angelos E.; Magiorkinis, Emmanouil N.; Hatzitheodorou, Eleni; Haida, Catherine; Zavitsanou, Assimina; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lazanas, Marios C.; Chini, Maria C.; Magafas, N.; Tsogas, Nickolaos; Paparizos, Vassilios A.; Kourkounti, Sofia; Antoniadou, Anastasia C.; Papadopoulos, Antonios I.; Panagopoulos, Periklis; Poulakou, Garyphallia G.; Sakka, V.; Chryssos, Georgios; Drimis, Stylianos; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Lelekis, Moyssis I.; Chilomenos, G.; Psichogiou, Mina A.; Daikos, George L.; Panos, George; Haratsis, G.; Kordossis, Theodore; Kontos, Athanasios N.; Koratzanis, Georgios; Theodoridou, Maria C.; Mostrou, Glykeria J.; Spoulou, Vana I.; Coughlan, S.; De Gascun, C.; Byrne, C.; Duffy, M.; Bergin, C.; Reidy, D.; Farrell, G.; Lambert, J.; O'Connor, E.; Rochford, A.; Low, J.; Coakely, P.; O'Dea, S.; Hall, W.; Grossman, Z.; Levi, I.; Chemtob, D.; Balotta, Claudia; Riva, C.; Mussini, C.; Caramma, I.; Capetti, A.; Colombo, M. C.; Rossi, C.; Prati, F.; Tramuto, F.; Vitale, F.; Ciccozzi, M.; Angarano, G.; Rezza, G.; Schmit, J. C.; Struck, D.; Hemmer, R.; Arendt, V.; Staub, T.; Schneider, F.; Roman, F.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Boucher, C. A. B.; van Kessel, A.; van Bentum, P. H. M.; Brinkman, K.; op de Coul, E. L.; van der Ende, M. E.; Hoepelman, I.; van Kasteren, M.; Juttmann, J.; Kuipers, M.; Langebeek, N.; Richter, C.; Santegoets, R.; Schrijnders-Gudde, L.; Schuurman, R.; van de Ven, B. J. M.; A˚sjo¨, B.; Ormaasen, V.; Aavitsland, P.; Horban, A.; Stanczak, J. J.; Stanczak, G. P.; Firlag-Burkacka, E.; Wiercinska-Drapalo, A.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, M.; Szata, W.; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Palma, C.; Borges, F.; Paixa&tild; o, T.; Duque, V.; Araújo, F.; Jevtovic, D.; Salemovic, D.; Stanekova, D.; Habekova, M.; Mokráš, Miloš; Truska, P.; Poljak, M.; Lunar, M.; Babic, Dunja Z.; Tomazic, J.; Vidmar, L.; Vovko, T.; Karner, P.; Clotet, B.; Domingo, P.; Galindo, M. J.; Miralles, C.; del Pozo, M. A.; Ribera, E.; Iribarren, J. A.; Ruiz, L.; de la Torre, J.; Vidal, F.; Garcia, F.; Paredes, R.; Albert, Jan; Heidarian, A.; Aperia-Peipke, K.; Axelsson, M.; Mild, M.; Karlsson, A.; So¨nnerborg, A.; Thalme, A.; Nave´r, L.; Bratt, G.; Karlsson, A.; Blaxhult, A.; Gissle´n, M.; Svennerholm, B.; Bergbrant, I.; Björkman, Per; Sa¨ll, C.; Mellgren, A˚; Lindholm, A.; Kuylenstierna, N.; Montelius, R.; Azimi, F.; Johansson, B.; Carlsson, M.; Johansson, E.; Ljungberg, B.; Ekvall, H.; Strand, A.; Ma¨kitalo, S.; o¨berg, S.; Holmblad, P.; Ho¨fer, M.; Holmberg, H.; Josefson, P.; Ryding, U. (2014)
      Background: One out of ten newly diagnosed patients in Europe was infected with a virus carrying a drug resistant mutation. We analysed the patterns over time for transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) using data ...
    • Article  

      Measuring recent thymic emigrants in blood of normal and HIV-1-infected individuals before and after effective therapy 

      Zhang, L.; Lewin, S. R.; Markowitz, M.; Lin, L. -H; Skulsky, E.; Karanicolas, R.; Yuxian, H.; Xia, J.; Tuttleton, S.; Vesanen, M.; Spiegel, H.; Kost, R.; Van Lunzen, J.; Stellbrink, H. -J; Wolinsky, S.; Borkowsky, W.; Palumbo, P.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Ho, David D. (1999)
      The role of the thymus in HIV-1 pathogenesis remains unclear. We developed an assay to quantify the number of recent thymic emigrants in blood based on the detection of a major excisional DNA byproduct (termed α1 circle) ...
    • Article  

      Molecular characterization of HIV type 1 strains from newly diagnosed patients in Cyprus (2007-2009) recovers multiple clades including unique recombinant strains and lack of transmitted drug resistance 

      Kousiappa, Ioanna; Achilleos, Charis; Hezka, Johana; Lazarou, Yiota; Othonos, Katerina M.; Demetriades, Ioannis; Kostrikis, Leontios G. (2011)
      HIV-1 evolution generates substantial genetic diversity among isolates, the majority of which are represented in areas where multiple strains cocirculate. A heterogeneous genetic HIV-1 pool has been found in Cyprus, directing ...
    • Article  

      A novel simple QSAR model for the prediction of anti-HIV activity using multiple linear regression analysis 

      Afantitis, Antreas; Melagraki, G.; Sarimveis, H.; Koutentis, Panayiotis Andreas; Markopoulos, J.; Igglessi-Markopoulou, O. (2006)
      A quantitative-structure activity relationship was obtained by applying Multiple Linear Regression Analysis to a series of 80 1-[2-hydroxyethoxy-methyl] -6-(phenylthio) thymine (HEPT) derivatives with significant anti-HIV ...
    • Article  

      Patterns of transmitted HIV drug resistance in Europe vary by risk group 

      Frentz, D.; Van De Vijver, D.; Abecasis, A. B.; Albert, Jan; Hamouda, O.; Jørgensen, L.; Kücherer, C.; Struck, D.; Schmit, J. -C; Vercauteren, J.; Åsjö, Birgitta; Balotta, Claudia; Bergin, C.; Beshkov, Danail; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Clotet, B.; Griskevicius, A.; Grossman, Z.; Horban, A.; Kolupajeva, T.; Korn, K.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Linka, K. L. M.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios N.; Paredes, R.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Stöckl, E.; Sönnerborg, A.; Stanekova, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Vandamme, A. -M; Boucher, C.; Wensing, A. (2014)
      Background: In Europe, a continuous programme (SPREAD) has been in place for ten years to study transmission of drug resistant HIV. We analysed time trends of transmitted drug resistance mutations (TDRM) in relation to the ...
    • Article  

      Persistence of episomal HIV-1 infection intermediates in patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy 

      Sharkey, M. E.; Teo, I.; Greenough, T.; Sharova, N.; Luzuriaga, K.; Sullivan, J. L.; Bucy, R. P.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Haase, A.; Veryard, C.; Davaro, R. E.; Cheeseman, S. H.; Daly, J. S.; Bova, C.; Ellison III, R. T.; Mady, B.; Lai, K. K.; Moyle, G.; Nelson, M.; Gazzard, B.; Shaunak, S.; Stevenson, M. (2000)
      Treatment of HIV-1-infected individuals with a combination of anti- retroviral agents results in sustained suppression of HIV-1 replication, as evidenced by a reduction in plasma viral RNA to levels below the limit of ...
    • Article  

      Persistent HIV-1 infection of natural killer cells in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy 

      Valentin, A.; Rosati, M.; Patenaude, D. J.; Hatzakis, Angelos E.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Lazanas, Marios C.; Wyvill, K. M.; Yarchoan, R.; Pavlakis, G. N. (2002)
      We have identified a subset of CD56+CD3- human natural killer (NK) cells that express CD4 and the HIV coreceptors CCR5 and CXCR4. These cells can be productively infected in vitro by both CCR5- and CXCR4-using molecular ...
    • Article  

      A polymorphism in the regulatory region of the CC-chemokine receptor 5 gene influences perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 to African-American infants 

      Deutsch, L.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Neumann, A. U.; Thomson, B.; Korber, B. T.; McHardy, P.; Karanicolas, R.; Huang, Y.; Lew, J. F.; McIntosh, K.; Pollack, H.; Borkowsky, W.; Spiegel, H. M. L.; Palumbo, P.; Oleske, J.; Bardeguez, A.; Luzuriaga, K.; Sullivan, J.; Wolinsky, S. M.; Koup, R. A.; Ho, David D.; Moore, J. P. (1999)
      There are natural mutations in the coding and noncoding regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type (HIV-1) CC-chemokine coreceptor 5 (CCR5) and in the related CCR2 protein (the CCR2-64I mutation). Individuals homozygous ...
    • Article  

      Transmission of HIV drug resistance and the predicted effect on current first-line regimens in Europe 

      Moutschen, M.; Hofstra, Laura Marije Arije; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Albert, Jan; Alexiev, Ivailo; Garcia, F.; Struck, D.; Van De Vijver, D. A. M. C.; Åsjö, Birgitta; Beshkov, Danail; Coughlan, S.; Descamps, D.; Griskevicius, A.; Hamouda, O.; Horban, A.; Van Kasteren, M.; Kolupajeva, T.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Liitsola, K.; Linka, M.; Mor, O.; Nielsen, C.; Otelea, D.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios N.; Paredes, R.; Poljak, M.; Puchhammer-Stöckl, E.; Sönnerborg, A.; Staneková, D.; Stanojevic, M.; Van Laethem, K.; Zazzi, M.; Lepej, S. Z.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Schmit, J. -C; Wensing, A. M. J.; Puchhammer-Stockl, E.; Sarcletti, M.; Schmied, B.; Geit, M.; Balluch, G.; Vandamme, A. M.; Vercauteren, J.; Derdelinckx, I.; Sasse, A.; Bogaert, M.; Ceunen, H.; De Roo, A.; De Wit, S.; Echahidi, F.; Fransen, K.; Goffard, J. -C; Goubau, P.; Goudeseune, E.; Yombi, J. -C; Lacor, P.; Liesnard, C.; Pierard, D.; Rens, R.; Schrooten, Y.; Vaira, D.; Vandekerckhove, L. P. R.; Van Den Heuvel, A.; Van Der Gucht, B.; Van Ranst, M.; Van Wijngaerden, E.; Vandercam, B.; Vekemans, M.; Verhofstede, C.; Clumeck, N.; Van Laethem, K.; Beshkov, Danail; Alexiev, Ivailo; Lepej, S. Z.; Begovac, J.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Demetriades, Ioannis; Kousiappa, Ioanna; Demetriou, Victoria L.; Hezka, Johana; Linka, M.; Maly, M.; Machala, L.; Nielsen, C.; Jørgensen, L. B.; Gerstoft, J.; Mathiesen, L.; Pedersen, C.; Nielsen, H.; Laursen, A.; Kvinesdal, B.; Liitsola, K.; Ristola, M.; Suni, J.; Sutinen, J.; Descamps, D.; Assoumou, L.; Castor, G.; Grude, M.; Flandre, P.; Storto, A.; Hamouda, O.; Kücherer, C.; Berg, T.; Braun, P.; Poggensee, G.; Däumer, M.; Eberle, J.; Heiken, H.; Kaiser, R.; Knechten, H.; Korn, K.; Müller, H.; Neifer, S.; Schmidt, B.; Walter, H.; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, B.; Harrer, T.; Paraskevis, Dimitrios N.; Hatzakis, Angelos E.; Zavitsanou, Assimina; Vassilakis, A.; Lazanas, Marios C.; Chini, Maria C.; Lioni, A.; Sakka, V.; Kourkounti, Sofia; Paparizos, Vassilios A.; Antoniadou, Anastasia C.; Papadopoulos, Antonios I.; Poulakou, Garyphallia G.; Katsarolis, I.; Protopapas, K.; Chryssos, Georgios; Drimis, Stylianos; Gargalianos, Panagiotis; Xylomenos, Georgios; Lourida, G.; Psichogiou, Mina A.; Daikos, George L.; Sipsas, N. V.; Kontos, Athanasios N.; Gamaletsou, M. N.; Koratzanis, Georgios; Sambatakou, E.; Mariolis, H.; Skoutelis, A.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Georgiou, O.; Panagopoulos, Periklis; Maltezos, E.; Coughlan, S.; De Gascun, C.; Byrne, C.; Duffy, M.; Bergin, C.; Reidy, D.; Farrell, G.; Lambert, J.; O'Connor, E.; Rochford, A.; Low, J.; Coakely, P.; O'Dea, S.; Hall, W.; Mor, O.; Levi, I.; Chemtob, D.; Grossman, Z.; Zazzi, M.; De Luca, A.; Balotta, Claudia; Riva, C.; Mussini, C.; Caramma, I.; Capetti, A.; Colombo, M. C.; Rossi, C.; Prati, F.; Tramuto, F.; Vitale, F.; Ciccozzi, M.; Angarano, G.; Rezza, G.; Kolupajeva, T.; Kolupajeva, T.; Vasins, O.; Griskevicius, A.; Lipnickiene, V.; Schmit, J. C.; Struck, D.; Sauvageot, Nicolas; Hemmer, R.; Arendt, V.; Michaux, C.; Staub, T.; Sequin-Devaux, C.; Wensing, A. M. J.; Boucher, C. A. B.; Van Kessel, A.; Van Bentum, P. H. M.; Brinkman, K.; Connell, B. J.; Van Der Ende, M. E.; Hoepelman, I. M.; Van Kasteren, M.; Kuipers, M.; Langebeek, N.; Richter, C.; Santegoets, R. M. W. J.; Schrijnders-Gudde, L.; Schuurman, R.; Van De Ven, B. J. M.; Åsjö, Birgitta; Kran, A. -M B.; Ormaasen, V.; Aavitsland, P.; Horban, A.; Stanczak, J. J.; Stanczak, G. P.; Firlag-Burkacka, E.; Wiercinska-Drapalo, A.; Jablonowska, E.; Maolepsza, E.; Leszczyszyn-Pynka, M.; Szata, W.; Camacho, Ricardo J.; Palma, C.; Borges, F.; Paixão, T.; Duque, V.; Araújo, F.; Otelea, D.; Paraschiv, S.; Tudor, A. M.; Cernat, R.; Chiriac, C.; Dumitrescu, F.; Prisecariu, L. J.; Jevtovic, Dj; Salemovic, D.; Stanekova, D.; Habekova, M.; Chabadová, Z.; Drobkova, T.; Bukovinova, P.; Shunnar, A.; Truska, P.; Poljak, M.; Lunar, M.; Babic, Dunja Z.; Tomazic, J.; Vidmar, L.; Vovko, T.; Karner, P.; Garcia, F.; Paredes, R.; Monge, S.; Moreno, S.; Del Amo, J.; Asensi, V.; Sirvent, J. L.; De Mendoza, C.; Delgado, R.; Gutiérrez, F.; Berenguer, J.; Garcia-Bujalance, S.; Stella, Natalia C.; Blanco, J. R.; Dalmau, D.; Rivero, M.; Segura, F.; Elıás, Marıá Jesús Pérez; Alvarez, M.; Chueca, N.; Rodríguez-Martín, C.; Vidal, C.; Palomares, J. C.; Viciana, I.; Viciana, P.; Cordoba, J.; Aguilera, A.; Domingo, P.; Galindo, M. J.; Miralles, C.; Del Pozo, M. A.; Ribera, E.; Iribarren, J. A.; Ruiz, L.; De La Torre, J.; Vidal, F.; Clotet, B.; Albert, Jan; Heidarian, A.; Aperia-Peipke, K.; Axelsson, M.; Mild, M.; Karlsson, A.; Sönnerborg, A.; Thalme, A.; Navér, L.; Bratt, G.; Karlsson, A.; Blaxhult, A.; Gisslén, M.; Svennerholm, B.; Bergbrant, I.; Björkman, Per; Säll, C.; Mellgren, Å.; Lindholm, A.; Kuylenstierna, N.; Montelius, R.; Azimi, F.; Johansson, B.; Carlsson, M.; Johansson, E.; Ljungberg, B.; Ekvall, H.; Strand, A.; Mäkitalo, S.; Öberg, S.; Holmblad, P.; Höfer, M.; Holmberg, H.; Josefson, P.; Ryding, U.; De Los Santos, I. (2016)
      Background. Numerous studies have shown that baseline drug resistance patterns may influence the outcome of antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, guidelines recommend drug resistance testing to guide the choice of initial ...
    • Article  

      Trends and predictors of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and clusters with TDR in a local Belgian HIV-1 epidemic 

      Pineda-Peña, A. -C; Schrooten, Y.; Vinken, L.; Ferreira, F.; Li, G.; Trovão, N. S.; Khouri, R.; Derdelinckx, I.; De Munter, P.; Kuc̈herer, C.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Nielsen, C.; Littsola, K.; Wensing, A.; Stanojevic, M.; Paredes, R.; Balotta, Claudia; Albert, Jan; Boucher, C.; Gomez-Lopez, A.; Van Wijngaerden, E.; Van Ranst, M.; Vercauteren, J.; Vandamme, A. M.; Van Laethem, K. (2014)
      We aimed to study epidemic trends and predictors for transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in our region, its clinical impact and its association with transmission clusters. We included 778 patients from the AIDS Reference ...
    • Article  

      Use of real-time PCR and molecular beacons to detect virus replication in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected individuals on prolonged effective antiretroviral therapy 

      Lewin, S. R.; Vesanen, M.; Kostrikis, Leontios G.; Hurley, A.; Duran, M.; Zhang, L.; Ho, David D.; Markowitz, M.; Gibson, U. E.; Heid, C. A. (1999)
      We have designed a novel, precise, and sensitive assay to measure unspliced (US) human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of HIV-1-infected individuals by using real-time PCR ...