A CPS leaky-wave antenna with reduced beam squinting using NRI-TL metamaterials
AuthorAntoniades, Marcos A.
Eleftheriades, G. V.
SourceIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
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A reduced beam-squinting printed leaky-wave antenna (LWA) is proposed, comprising cascaded negative-refractive-index transmission-line (NRI-TL) metamaterial unit cells. Each NRI-TL unit cell is implemented in co-planar strip (CPS) technology and consists of a host TL loaded with series interdigitated capacitors and shunt meandered inductors. Periodic analysis is applied to the NRI-TL unit cell in order to extract the dispersion and Bloch impedance characteristics. Subsequently, the angular variation of the main radiated beam with frequency or "beam squinting"is derived, based on the expression for the Bloch propagation constant of the NRI-TL line. It is shown that by operating the LWA in the upper right-handed band where the phase and group velocities are closest to the speed of light, the beam squinting that the antenna experiences can be minimized. The theoretical performance of the LWA is verified through full-wave simulations and measurements of a fabricated prototype designed to produce a radiated beam at an angle of θsc = +45° at fo = 5 GHz. This 20-element NRI-TL LWA exhibits a measured return-loss bandwidth below -10 dB of 0.91 GHz (18.2%), and an average beam squint of 0.031°/ MHz. The proposed NRI-TL LWA is uniplanar, differential and broadband, and therefore suitable for integration with other microwave components and devices. © 2008 IEEE.