Transformation products and reaction pathways of carbamazepine during photocatalytic and sonophotocatalytic treatment
SourceJournal of hazardous materials
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•Degradation of CBZ during US, TiO2/UV and TiO2/UV/US processes has been evaluated.•The combined TiO2/UV/US oxidation resulted in significant enhancement of the CBZ degradation rate.•Transformation products were identified and the transformation pathways were proposed.•An acute toxicity test showed an increase in toxicity over the time-course of the studied processes.This study examines the degradation of the antiepileptic carbamazepine (CBZ) by sonolysis, TiO2-based heterogeneous photocatalysis under UV-A and simulated solar irradiation, and by the combined use of UV-A and ultrasound irradiation (i.e. sonophotocatalysis) in demineralized water, ground water and effluent wastewater. The processes were compared with respect to substrate conversion rate and the extent of DOC reduction as a measure of mineralization. CBZ was degraded following a pseudo-first order kinetics. Sonophotocatalysis provided the highest rate of CBZ transformation over the time-course of the experiment while the degree of DOC removal in pure water was similar for all the studied treatments (around 40%), and always lower than CBZ conversion. This indicated that a considerable organic load remained in the treated solutions that could also be attributed to the presence of persistent oxidation products. UPLC–(+ESI)-QToF-MS was employed to determine major CBZ-related transformation products. Several recalcitrant hydroxy- and keto-derivatives of CBZ were tentatively identified. A Daphnia magna bioassay was used to evaluate the potential toxicity of the samples collected at different time points showing that the mixtures were highly toxic to D. magna.