Cointegration and joint efficiency of international commodity markets
SourceQuarterly Review of Economics and Finance
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This paper investigates the semi-strong efficiency hypothesis in the international commodity markets of four industrialized countries, using vector autoregression (VAR) and cointegration techniques. Efficiency in these markets requires the corresponding real exchange rates to be martingales with respect to any information set available in the public domain. In the context of a VAR consisting only of real exchange rates, we show that necessary and sufficient conditions for joint efficiency of all the markets under consideration amount to the VAR being of order one (Markovness) and non-cointegrated. On the contrary, in a VAR extended by other potentially "relevant" variables, such as the corresponding real interest rates, non-cointegration and Markovness are only sufficient conditions for the same commodity markets to be characterized as jointly efficient. We also suggest methods for efficiency testing in each individual market within a cointegrated VAR and, finally, we discuss possible long-run linkages among the real exchange rates and real interest rates in association with efficiency in the commodity markets. JEL Classification Number: F31 © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc.