Mediterranean Lifestyle in Relation to Cognitive Health: Results from the HELIAD Study
ΣυγγραφέαςAnastasiou, Costas A.
Kontogianni, Meropi D.
Kosmidis, Mary H.
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Many lifestyle factors have been linked to cognitive function but little is known about their combined effect. An overall lifestyle pattern for people living in the Mediterranean basin has been proposed, including diet, but also physical activity, sleep and daily living activities with social/intellectual aspects. We aimed to examine the associations between a combination of these lifestyle factors and detailed cognitive performance. A total of 1716 participants from the Hellenic Longitudinal Investigation of Ageing and Diet (HELIAD), a population-based study of participants ≥65 years, were included in this analysis. Lifestyle factors were evaluated using standard, validated questionnaires and a Total Lifestyle Index (TLI) was constructed. Cognitive outcomes included mild cognitive impairment (MCI) diagnosis, a composite z-score (either continuous or with a threshold at the 25th percentile) and z-scores for five cognitive domains. A higher TLI was associated with 65% reduced odds for MCI in the non-demented individuals and 43% reduced odds for low global cognition when MCI participants were excluded, a risk reduction equivalent to 9 and 2.7 fewer years of ageing, respectively. Each lifestyle factor was differentially associated with domain-specific cognitive performance. Our results suggest that a TLI, more so than single lifestyle parameters, may be related to cognitive performance.