Movement Disorders Related to Gluten Sensitivity: A Systematic Review
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Gluten related disorders (GRD) represent a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations that are triggered by the ingestion of gluten. Coeliac disease (CD) or gluten sensitive enteropathy is the most widely recognised, but extra-intestinal manifestations have also been increasingly identified and reported. Such manifestations may exist in the absence of enteropathy. Gluten sensitivity (GS) is another term that has been used to include all GRD, including those where there is serological positivity for GS related antibodies in the absence of an enteropathy. Gluten ataxia (GA) is the commonest extraintestinal neurological manifestation and it has been the subject of many publications. Other movement disorders (MDs) have also been reported in the context of GS. The aim of this review was to assess the current available medical literature concerning MDs and GS with and without enteropathy. A systematic search was performed while using PubMed database. A total of 48 articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in the present review. This review highlights that the phenomenology of gluten related MDs is broader than GA and demonstrates that gluten-free diet (GFD) is beneficial in a great percentage of such cases.