A longitudinal study on the impact of instructional quality on student learning in primary schools of Maldives
AuthorHawwa, Shiuna Musthafa
PublisherΠανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου, Σχολή Κοινωνικών Επιστημών και Επιστημών Αγωγής / University of Cyprus, Faculty of Social Sciences and Education
Place of publicationΚύπρος
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The conceptual framework of the Dynamic Model of educational effectiveness was used to identify the factors, dimensions and stages of effective teaching in the Maldives The DM refers to the factors operating at four levels: student, teacher (classroom), school, and the educational system. However, this study seeks to identify factors operating only at the student and teacher (classroom) level. At the teacher (classroom) level, the model refers to eight factors related to teachers’ behaviour in the classroom: orientation, structuring, questioning, application, teaching-modelling, management of time, classroom as a learning environment and assessment. The model assumes that each of the above factors can be defined and measured using five dimensions of frequency, focus, stage, quality and differentiation. One of the main aims of the study is to determine if the factors and dimensions of the DM operating at the student and teacher (classroom) level can be detected in primary classrooms and whether they have an impact on student learning. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the collection of data. The sample consisted of grade 4 students (n =350) and class teachers (n =31) from 8 primary schools in Male’, the capital city of Maldives. Written tests were administered to students in term 1 and at the end of term 2 for the year 2018 - 2019. Data was also collected on additional student background factors (eg., socio-economic status, students’ perception of importance of studying, parental involvement in students’ study behaviour, students’ trust in parents, and further tuition help). Data was also collected on teachers’ background factors (eg., teachers’ age, qualification and years of experience). One high-inference, the second low-inference observation instrument, and the student questionnaire from the DM were used in collecting data on instructional quality of teachers. In addition, an observation tool of differentiated instruction was used in order to check if additional factors of differentiation could be captured. The multilevel analysis revealed associations with teaching effects and student learning. The data that emerged from the student questionnaire, second low-inference and the high-inference instruments were able to identify and associate teacher factors with student learning. However, the data from the differentiated instruction instrument did not capture any teaching effects on student learning. It was also revealed that student background factors did not have a significant effect on their learning. In addition, it was also revealed that, with the exception of teachers’ age, the teachers’ background factors did not have a significant effect on student learning. Based on the results, it can be concluded that both factors and dimensions of the DM are significant in developing context in a Maldivian classroom. The study also identified different stages of teaching in a Maldivian classroom. The results indicated that different teaching factors and dimensions can be grouped into six types of teacher behaviour stages that are distinctive from one stage to the other and indicated that teachers’ teaching skills progressed from stage to stage starting with more direct teaching behaviour to more advanced teaching behaviours. Implications for teachers’ professional development are drawn.