Augmenting intelligence: Developmental limits to learning-based cognitive change
Spanoudis, George C.
Demetriou, Andreas P.
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We investigated if learning relational reasoning in mathematics generalizes to other domains and general intelligence, including speed, attention control, and working memory. A total of 118 10-year olds were involved, allocated to an experimental and a control group. The experimental group was involved in 12 learning sessions addressed to various aspects of relational reasoning. Various analyses, including Rasch scaling, growth modeling and structured means analysis, showed significant but not sustainable learning gains in the ability trained. However, learning transferred to similar processes in analogical reasoning and also to attention control and working memory, indicating sustainable effects on mechanisms underlying general intelligence. An upper developmental constraint to learning was found. Implications for psychometric and developmental theories of intelligence and for education are discussed.