Liquid expanded monolayers of lipids as model systems to understand the anionic hofmeister series: 1. A tale of models
SourceJournal of Physical Chemistry B
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In this work, we use Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) as model systems to enhance the understanding of specific anion effects in physicochemical and biological systems. The 298 K isotherms (equation of state, EOS) of DPPC over solutions of a range of sodium salts depend strongly on the type and concentration of the salt in the subphase. We focus in particular on the liquid expanded phase region of the DPPC EOS and assume that the deviation of the isotherms over electrolyte solutions from that over pure water is due entirely to the charging of the lipid monolayer by the ions. We then examine the ability of a range of phenomenological continuum models to explain the pressure increase in the presence of electrolytes. The important finding is that insoluble lipid monolayers allow the discrimination between possible modes of ion-lipid interaction. Chemical binding models, simple or modified, cannot fit the range of data presented in this work. Both dispersion interaction and partitioning models fit most of the experimental isotherms and provide unique values for dispersion coefficients or ionic partitioning constants, respectively, even though the nature of these models is completely different (the former concentrates on the potential of mean force that acts on an ion in the double layer, while the latter concentrates on the treatment of interactions at the interface). Surprisingly, the respective fitting parameters are very highly correlated, reflecting, we believe, the effect of ion size on ionic properties and interactions. With sodium fluoride (NaF) as the subphase electrolyte, it is demonstrated that sodium exhibits a weak complexation-type interaction with the zwitterionic lipids. The simple dispersion and partitioning models cannot account for the NaF results, highlighting the need for more complex salt-lipid interaction models that account both for sodium binding and anion partitioning. This realization sets the stage for the companion paper. © 2009 American Chemical Society.
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