A review of force reduction methods in precision forging axisymmetric shapes
AuthorPolitis, Denis J.
Politis, Nicholas J.
Dean, Trevor A.
SourceThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
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This paper provides a review of the methods developed over the years for reducing working forces for the precision metal forming processes. Precision forging normally involves completely, or near completely closed cavity dies with no or minimal draft, making features on the extremities difficult to fill and requiring high loads. Means to minimise load, in order to enhance tool life, or reduce press capacity are crucial to the success of precision forging processes. The main concentration of this study is on design features which can be incorporated in tooling and/or workpiece in order to assist in minimisation of forging load while achieving complete die filling. The load reduction methods are presented using examples mainly of precision gear forging, which is representative of the precision forging of other axisymmetric components with complex peripheral shape. The methods reviewed are divided into the categories of (i) billet design, (ii) tool design and (iii) process design. Their effects on forging load reduction for precision forging, along with the authors’ opinions as to the benefits, drawbacks and applicability of each, are presented.