Searching for the "Big Five" in a Greek context: The NEO-FFI under the microscope
Kokkinos, Constantinos M.
SourcePersonality and Individual Differences
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The five-factor inventory (FFI) is a commonly used personality test based on the NEO-personality inventory revised. It has been translated into several languages and validated in a number of countries. Using a sample of 1204 individuals, the present study evaluates the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Greek FFI and provides normative information for its use with Greek populations. Convergent validity is also assessed by studying the relationship between the five scales of the FFI and the Brief Symptom Inventory. Results show that although the factor scales had acceptable internal consistency, they were highly intercorrelated. Exploratory factor analyses failed to reproduce the appropriate factor structure, yielding instead numerous fragments of the five dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses also failed to lend support to the five factor model of personality as measured by this instrument. Based on these results, the use of the instrument is recommended only with serious caution in this cultural context. Further research ought to decipher whether the failures to reproduce the five factor model using the FFI in this and other cultures represents a challenge to the universality of the theory, or merely a shortcoming of the specific instrument. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.