AuthorSinclair, Thomas A.
SourceEncyclopaedia of Islam Online
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Illustration 1. Birecik, citadel rock, from south-east. Photograph courtesy of Thomas A. Sinclair (1978). Birecik (Ar. al-Bīra) is a town on the east bank of the Euphrates River, in present-day Turkey, approximately 21 kilometres north of the Syrian border. An important route from Aleppo to Urfa (Ruhā, ancient Edessa) and other Upper Mesopotamian cities crossed the river here. The narrow, steep-sided citadel rock rises almost directly from the river bank, and the walled town stretched to the eas...