New regiospecific isothiazole C-C coupling chemistry
SourceOrganic and Biomolecular Chemistry
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Regioselective palladium catalysed coupling reactions are achieved in good to high yields, starting from either 3,5-dichloro- or 3,5-dibromoisothiazole-4-carbonitriles 1 and 2, providing 3-halo-5-(hetero/aryl, alkenyl and alkynyl)isothiazoles 3, 4, 6-9 from Stille couplings, 3-halo-5-(hetero/arylethynyl)isothiazoles 14-19 from Sonogashira and 5,5′-bi(3-chloroisothiazole-4-carbonitrile) (13) from an Ullmann type coupling. 3,5-Dibromoisothiazole-4-carbonitrile 2 is more reactive than the dichloroisothiazole-4-carbonitrile 1 and effective enough for Stille, Negishi and Sonogashira couplings. 5,5-Bi(3-chloroisothiazole-4-carbonitrile) (13) is prepared by a palladium catalysed Ullmann coupling from 3-chloro-5-iodoisothiazole-4-carbonitrile (11). A variety of 3-substituted isothiazoles (3-substituents = Cl, Br, OMs, OTs and OTf) are less reactive and fail to give successful Suzuki couplings at the isothiazole C-3 position. The 3-iodo-5-phenyl-isothiazole-4-carbonitrile (28), prepared via Sandmeyer iodination, participates successfully in Suzuki, Ullmann type, Stille, Negishi and Sonogashira coupling reactions. All products are fully characterized. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2006.
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