Drosophila immune priming against Pseudomonas aeruginosa is short-lasting and depends on cellular and humoral immunity
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Immune responses are traditionally divided into the innate and the adaptive arm, both of which are present in vertebrates, while only the innate arm is found in invertebrates. Immune priming experiments in Drosophila melanogaster and other invertebrates during the last decade have challenged this dogma, questioning the boundaries between innate and adaptive immunity. Studies on repeated inoculation of Drosophila with microbes reveal a long-lasting cellular immunity adaptation against particular microorganisms. Here we study the lasting effect of immune priming against infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic human pathogen that is lethal to the common fruit fly. Drosophila priming with heat-killed or low in virulence P. aeruginosa extends fly survival during a secondary lethal infection with a virulent strain of the same species. The protective immune response can last for more than 10 days after exposure to a persistent low-in-virulence live infection, but it is eliminated 7 days after the host is primed with heat-killed bacteria. Moreover, not only the cellular, but also the systemic NF-KB-mediated immune responses contribute to immune priming. Thus each microbe might elicit different mechanisms of immune priming that may or may not last for long. © 2013 Christofi T and Apidianakis Y.
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