Evidence for high-risk haplotypes and (CGG)n expansion in fragile X syndrome in the hellenic population of Greece and Cyprus
Patsalis, Philippos C.
Georgiou, Ioannis A.
Hadjimarcou, Michael I.
Constantinou-Deltas, Constantinos D.
SourceAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics
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The expansion of the trinucleotide repeat (CGG)n in successive generations through maternal meiosis is the cause of fragile X syndrome. Analysis of CA repeat polymorphisms flanking the FMR-1 gene provides evidence of a limited number of 'founder' chromosomes and predisposing high-risk haplotypes related to the mutation. To investigate the origin of mutations in the fragile X syndrome in the Hellenic populations of Greece and Cyprus, we studied the alleles and haplotypes at DXS548 and FRAXAC2 loci of 16 independent fragile X and 70 normal control chromosomes. In addition, we studied 191 unrelated normal X chromosomes for the distribution and frequencies of CGG alleles. At DXS548, 6 alleles were found, 2 (194 and 196) of which were represented on fragile X chromosomes. At FRAXAC2, 6 alleles were found, 4 of which were present on fragile X chromosomes. Sixteen haplotypes were identified, but only 5 were present on fragile X chromosomes. The highest number of CGG repeats (≤ 33) were associated with haplotypes 194-147, 194-151, 194-153, and 204-155. The data provide evidence for founder chromosomes and high-risk haplotypes in the Hellenic population.