Neural network controlling feeding in Lymnaea stagnalis: Immunocytochemical localization of myomodulin, small cardioactive peptide, buccalin, and FMRFamide‐ related peptides
Burke, J. F.
Benjamin, P. R.
SourceJournal of Comparative Neurology
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This paper investigates the distribution of four classes of neuropeptides, myomodulin, small cardioactive peptide (SCP), buccalin, and FMRFamide, in central neurons forming the network that underlies feeding behavior in the snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Intracellular dye‐marking and immunocytochemical analysis, using antisera to the different classes of peptides, were applied to identified neurons of all three levels of the hierarchy of the circuitry: modulatory interneurons (cerebral giant cells, CGCslow oscillator, SO), central pattern generator (CPG) interneurons (N1, N2, N3), motoneurons (B1–B10), and their peripheral target organs. Myomodulin immunoreactivity was detected in the CGC interneurons, in the SO, and in ventral N2‐type CPG interneurons. Several large buccal motoneurons, the paired B1, B2, B3, B7, and neurons located in the dorsal posterior area (putative B4 cluster types) were also myomodulin immunoreactive. Target organs of buccal motoneurons, the buccal mass, salivary glands, and oesophagus contained myomodulin‐immunopositive fibers. SCP appeared in N2‐type interneurons and was found colocalized with myomodulin in the B1 and B2 motoneurons. SCP‐containing neurons in the B4 cluster area were also detected. The buccal mass and salivary glands exhibited SCP‐immunoreactive fibers. Buccalin immunoreactivity was scarce in the buccal ganglia and was identified only in N1‐type interneurons and three pairs of dorsal posterior neurons. In the periphery, immunoreactive fibers were localized in the oesophagus only. None of the buccal neuronal types examined revealed immunoreactivity to SEQPDVDDYLRDVVLQSEEPLY (“SEEPLY”), a peptide encoded in the FMRFamide precursor protein of Lymnaea. SEEPLY immunoreactivity was confined to a pair of novel ventral neurons with projections to the laterobuccal nerve innervating the buccal mass. Immunoreactive fibers were also traced in this organ. © 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc. Copyright © 1994 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.