Molecular factors affecting the complex formation between deferiprone (L1) and Cu(II): Possible implications on efficacy and toxicity
Kontoghiorghes, G. J.
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Deferiprone (1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one, L1, CAS 30652-11-0) is a new chelating drug used worldwide for the treatment of iron overloading conditions. Spectrophotometric and potentiometric measurements were carried out to investigate the interaction of L1 with Cu(II) ions under different conditions. The complexation of Cu(II) ions with L1 in aqueous solution leads predominantly to the formation of the Cu(L1)2 species at a pH range of 4-9. The experimental results indicate that L1 has high affinity for Cu(II) with stability constants logβ11 = 10.3 ± 0.9 and logβ12 = 19.2 ± 0.6. The effect of Cu(II) ions on the affinity of L1 for Fe(III) ions by competition reactions in vitro indicate displacement of Fe(III) in a concentration dependent manner by Cu(II). Similarly, the presence of different buffers at various pH values resulted in the formation of different stoichiometry L1 complexes with Cu(II) and of mixed complexes with buffer anions. The strong interaction of L1 with Cu(II) may have implications on the therapeutic and toxicological properties of this chelating drug. In particular, L1 may be used in the treatment of copper overloading conditions, such as Wilson's disease or other conditions where copper toxicity is implicated.