Attenuation of drug-stimulated topoisomerase II-DNA cleavable complex formation in wild-type HL-60 cells treated with an intracellular calcium buffer is correlated with decreased cytotoxicity and site-specific hypophosphorylation of topoisomerase IIα
Grabowski, D. R.
Dubyak, G. R.
Constantinou, Andreas I.
Rybicki, L. A.
Bukowski, R. M.
Ganapathi, M. K.
Hickson, I. D.
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Topoisomerase II (topo II), an essential enzyme for cell viability, is also the target for clinically important anti-neoplastic agents that stimulate topo II-mediated DNA scission. The role of alterations in topo IIα phosphorylation and its effect on drug-induced DNA damage and cytotoxicity were investigated. Following loading of HL-60 cells with the calcium buffer 1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetra(acetoxymethyl) ester (BAPTA-AM), which abrogates intracellular Ca2+ transients, a significant decrease in etoposide (VP-16)- or amsacrine (m-AMSA)-stabilized topo II-DNA cleavable complex formation and a corresponding decrease in cytotoxicity was observed. In a cell-free system, nuclear extracts from BAPTA-AM-treated cells exhibited markedly less activity when assayed for VP-16-stabilized topo II-DNA complex formation, but not decatenation of kinetoplast DNA. In contrast, the loading of HL-60 cells with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis-(2-pyridyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN), which binds heavy metals without disturbing calcium or magnesium concentrations, did not significantly affect VP-16-stimulated topo II-DNA cleavable complex formation or cytotoxicity. In HL-60 cells the accumulation of BAPTA, but not TPEN, also led to the hypophosphorylation of topo IIα. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping of topo IIα protein from HL-60 cells revealed: (a) eight major phosphorylation sites in untreated cells(b) hypophosphorylation of two out of eight sites in BAPTA-AM-treated cellsand (c) hypophosphorylation of between two and four out of eight sites in topo II-poison-resistant HL-60 cells. The two hypophosphorylated sites present following BAPTA-AM treatment of wild-type cells were identical with the hypophosphorylated sites in the resistant cells, but were not the same as the sites that are substrates for casein kinase II. In summary, changes in intracellular Ca2+ transients that lead to the site-specific hypophosphorylation of topo IIα are possibly involved in regulating the DNA damage caused by and the cytotoxic potential of topo II poisons.
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