Alport syndrome from bench to bedside: The potential of current treatment beyond RAAS blockade and the horizon of future therapies
Constantinou-Deltas, Constantinos D.
SourceNephrology Dialysis Transplantation
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The hereditary type IV collagen disease Alport syndrome (AS) always leads to end-stage renal failure. Yesterday, for the past 90 years, this course was described as 'inevitable'. Today, RAAS blockade has changed the 'inevitable' course to a treatable disease. Tomorrow, researchers hope to erase the 'always' from 'always leads to renal failure' in the textbooks. This review elucidates therapeutic targets that evolve from research: (i) kidney embryogenesis and pathogenesis(ii) phenotypegenotype correlation and the role of collagen receptors and podocytes(iii) the malfunctioning Alport-GBM(iv) tubulointerstitial fibrosis(v) the role of proteinuria in pathogenesis and prognosisand (vi) secondary events such as infections, hyperparathyroidism and hypercholesterolaemia. Therefore, moderate lifestyle, therapy of bacterial infections, Paricalcitol in adult patients with hyperparathyroidism and HMG-CoAreductase inhibitors in adult patients with dyslipoproteinemia might contribute to a slower progression of AS and less cardiovascular events. In the future, upcoming treatments including stem cells, chaperon therapy, collagen receptor blockade and anti-microRNA therapy will expand our perspective in protecting the kidneys of Alport patients from further damage. This perspective on current and future therapies is naturally limited by our personal focus in research, but aims to motivate young scientists and clinicians to find a multimodal cure for AS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
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